Wednesday, February 20, 2019

中學閱讀測驗易錯題 (3) Many universities in Taiwan


Many universities in Taiwan have received numerous complaints concerning their graduates. Whether for factories or offices, these complaints are all similar: students with university degrees have a little or even no practical experience. They have knowledge but little ability. Since government and businesses need ready-to-work employees, what can be done to remedy this situation?

The Ministry of Education in Taiwan and many other countries have taken a long, hard look at what is referred to as a dual education system found originally in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, but now spreading around the world. The dual education system, as the name suggests, includes apprenticeship and the school sections. The former is on-the-job training, working on site at a real company on a part-time basis, and with pay. The latter refers to in-class instruction from background knowledge to an introduction to theory. Students may choose to work either a few days a week or during blocks of about two weeks for a total of 60 days a year. Dual education can begin as early as age 15. In fact, some students become actual employees of the company they work for. They can choose from 350 or so fields offering dual education!

No system is perfect. Training students is expensive for a companies, and some are becoming less willing to take on students who are later free to quit and end up at a rival company. Businesses are also subject to a great number of regulations concerning the hiring of young people, which costs money and takes a lot of time. High-tech companies find it hard to train students in several specialized areas.

Despite this problems, dual education is considered more successful than only a knowledge-based education. Perhaps that is why so many countries have adopted this novel but practical educational system.





  1. What is the main idea of this passage?
A.        A practical approach to education.
B.        The problem of college graduates.
C.       Education in European countries.
D.       Dual education around the world.

2.        In what way will students benefit from dual education?
A.        They can graduate much earlier.
B.        They can make a fortune from on the job training.
C.       They have lots of courses to choose from.
D.       They will be hired by the company they work for.

3.        According to the passage, which is a drawback of dual education?
A.        After training, students must work for a company for a few years.
B.        It’s difficult to train students in specialized fields.
C.       Companies are banned from hiring young people.
D.       It takes time and money to pay for those students tuition.

4.        What is the authors attitude toward dual education?
A.        Optimistic.
B.        Doubtful.
C.       Opposing.
D.       Neutral.











Friday, February 15, 2019

形容詞比較級和最高級的變化



(形容詞分:原級、比較級和最高級)
例如:高的、比較高的、最高的;美的、比較美的、最美的。請務必熟記下列規則喔。

規則變化

1.       單音節形容詞,(少數)二音節形容詞 er        比較級
    單音節形容詞,(少數)二音節形容詞 est       最高級
原級(Positive   比較級(Comparative      最高級(Superlative
tall               taller                      tallest
long              longer                     longest
short             shorter                     shortest
young            younger                    youngest
old               older                      oldest
fast               faster                     fastest
hard               harder                    hardest
few               fewer                     fewest
clever             cleverer                   cleverest
narrow            narrower                  narrowest 
2.       字尾是 e r              比較級 
   字尾是 e st             最高級
原級             比較級           最高級
large             larger             largest
wide             wider             widest
nice              nicer             nicest
late              later              latest
strange           stranger           strangest
3.       字尾是子音+ y……去掉 y ier       比較級 
   字尾是子音+ y……去掉 y iest       最高級
原級             比較級           最高級
dry              drier              driest
busy             busier             busiest
easy             easier             easiest
early             earlier            earliest
happy            happier           happiest
heavy            heavier            heaviest
pretty            prettier            prettiest
dirty             dirtier             dirtiest

4.  形容詞字尾是短母音 子音 ,重複字尾子音 er
形容詞字尾是短母音 子音 ,重複字尾子音 est
原級             比較級           最高級
big               bigger            biggest
thin              thinner           thinnest
hot               hotter            hottest
fat               fatter             fattest
sad               sadder            saddest
wet              wetter            wettest
5.  more -ful, -ble, -ous, -ing, -ve等二音節形容詞及三音節形容詞
    most -ful, -ble, -ous, -ing, -ve等二音節形容詞及三音節形容詞
原級                   比較級              最高級
beautiful            more beautiful        most beautiful
careful              more careful         most careful
comfortable          more comfortable     most comfortable
famous             more famous         most famous
interesting           more interesting      most interesting
active               more active         most active
expensive           more expensive       most expensive
difficult            more difficult         most difficult
important          more important        most important
不規則變化
原級                   比較級              最高級
good                   better               best
well                    better               best
bad                    worse               worst
many                   more               most
much                   more               most
little                    less                least
old                     older               oldest
old                     elder               eldest(指排行)
far                     farther              farthest(指距離)
far                     further              furthest(指程度)
late                     later               latest(指時間)
late                     latter              last ((指順序)



原級句型
1.       as 原級形容詞 as
a.       I am as tall as heis.
b.       He is as old as I am.
c.       Mary is as beautiful as Lucy.
d.       My house is as large as John’s.
2.       not as 原級形容詞 as
not so 原級形容詞 as
a.       Mr. Green is not as old as he looks.
b.       Mr. Green is not so old as he looks.
3.       less 原級形容詞 than
a.       The bear is less large than the elephant.
b.       I am less old than you.
4.       the least 原級形容詞
a.       Bill is the least tall(= the shortest of the three brothers.
b.       This is the least expensive(= the cheapestof all.
比較級句型
1.                     be 比較級形容詞 than
a.       They were happier than they are now.
b.       He was thinner than he is now.
c.       I am younger than he.
d.       Summer is hotter than spring.
e.       Lesson One is more difficult than Lesson Two.
f.        My hat is more expensive than Mary’s.
g.       Who is earlier, Ben or Tom?
h.       Which is more expensive, beef or pork?
2.                     be 比較級形容詞 of the two
a.       He is the taller of the two.
b.       She is the better of the two.
c.       Tommy is the worse of the two.
d.       Dr. Wang is the more famous of the two.
e.       Miss White is the more beautiful of the two.
***  very 原級形容詞   This book is very interesting.
      much 比較級形容詞   A train is much faster than a bus.
                             Today is much colder than yesterday.
      even  比較級形容詞   He is even worse than his brother.
                             That book is even more interesting.



最高級句型
1.       the  最高級形容詞
a.       Mr. Li is the youngest teacher in our school.
b.       Sally is the best student in her class.
c.       July is the hottest month in the year.
d.       Who is the tallest, Tom, Bill, or Mark?
e.       This is the most interesting book I have ever read.
f.        She is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.
2.       be 最高級形容詞 of the three
a.       He is the best of the three.
b.       Michael is the strongest of all.
c.       This house is the most expensive of the four.
***原級, 比較級, 最高級互換
No other girl is so young as Mary.
Mary is younger than any other girl.
Mary is younger than all the other girls.
Mary is the youngest of all the girls.

No other student is so smart as Ted.
Ted is smarter than any other student.
Ted is smarter than all the other students.
Ted is the smartest of all the students.

含有比較級, 最高級的成語
You had better go right away. You’d better go right away.
You better go right away.
No more tea, thank you.
Later on I thought it was really funny.
At last, he made it.
At least it is worth 30,000 dollars.
He will be back by three at the latest.
I’ll do my best.
You have to make the most of your time.



副詞的比較:大多數的情狀副詞和少數表時間或程度的副詞可以和形容詞一樣地形成比較級和最高級。
1.  單音節副詞,(少數)二音節副詞 er        比較級
    單音節副詞,(少數)二音節副詞 est       最高級
原級                   比較級                最高級
hard (努力地)         harder               hardest
fast                    faster                fastest
soon                   sooner                soonest
early                   earlier                earliest
late                     later                latest(指時間)
late                     latter               last ((指順序
2.   more 二音節以上副詞                   比較級
     most     ---ly                          最高級
原級                   比較級              最高級
often                   more often           most often
seldom                 more seldom          most seldom
carefully                more carefully        most carefully
clearly                 more clearly          most clearly
kindly                  more kindly          most kindly
quickly                 more quickly         most quickly
beautifully              more beautifully       most beautifully
3.       不規則變化
well                    better               best
badly                   worse               worst
much                   more               most
little                    less                least
far                     farther              farthest(指距離)
far                     further              furthest(指程度)
late                     later               latest(指時間)
late                     latter              last ((指順序)
原級句型
1.  as 原級副詞 as
a.       I work as hard as John does.
b.       Tom can run as fast as I can.
c.       He goes there as often as I do.
2.  not as 原級形容詞 as
not so 原級形容詞 as
a.       I don’t work as hard as he does.
b.       He doesn’t come here as often as you do.
c.  Tom can’t run as fast as I can.
比較級句型
動詞 比較級副詞 than
1.       He runs faster than I do.
2.       Helen wrote more carefully than Tomdid.
3.       I learned more quickly than she did.
4.       They go there more often than we.
5.       He can speak Japanese better than English.
6.       I like you better than he likes you .我喜歡你甚於他喜歡你。
7.       I like you better thanI like him.  我喜歡你甚於喜歡他。
8.       I love you more than my life.
9.       Which do you like better , this or that?
***  much 比較級副詞   A train runs much faster than a bus.
                              He sings much better than Bill.
最高級句型
動詞  最高級副詞
1.       Bill runs thefastest in the class.
2.       John works themost carefully of all.
3.       Which do you like thebest, apples, oranges or bananas?






*形容詞原級ž比較級 (規則1)
A: __________________________________________
tall"__________    high"__________   short"__________
nice"__________   cute"__________   late"__________

*形容詞原級ž比較級 (規則2)
B:___________________________________________
橢圓形圖說文字: 加油!happy"__________  pretty"__________  heavy"_____________

*形容詞原級ž比較級 (規則3)

C:___________________________________________
hot"__________ fat"__________  red"__________

*形容詞原級ž比較級 (規則4)
D: ___________________________________________
beautiful"____________________         difficult"____________________
serious "____________________

*形容詞原級ž比較級 (不規則)
E:_________________________________________
 good"__________  bad"__________  many "__________  much"__________


Practice:
1.      close"__________ 2.cute"__________ 3.safe"__________ 4.gentle"__________
5.       narrow"__________ 6.noisy "__________ 7. easy"__________ 8. red"__________
9.       sad"__________ 10. glad "__________ 11. lazy"__________ 12.wide"__________
13. thin"__________ 14. wet "__________ 15. dirty"__________ 16.new"________ 17.old"__________ 18.thirsty"__________ 19. special"_____________ 20.brave"________ 21.delicious"_____________ 22.expensive"__________
21.short"__________22.difficult"____________  23. handsome"__________
24.early"__________  25.serious"__________   26. young"__________
27. busy"__________ 28.cheap"__________  29.warm"__________
30.cold"__________  31.hot"__________ 32convenient"_________________
33 fine"__________  34.cool"__________ 35.exciting"__________
36.dangerous"__________     37.good"__________ 38.bad"__________
39.many"__________  40.much"__________ 41.confortable"__________
42 useful"__________ 

*形容詞比較級的用法:用以比較兩人或兩物的比較

(AB…) A+_______+_________+__________B
1.Peter比我高 __________________________________
2.我比他好。__________________________________
3.第二課比第一課難。______________________________________________________
4.紐約的天氣比台北冷。_________________________________________________


*比較級的強調:__________________+比較級
very+原級
Peter is very tall.

Peter比我高的很。_____________________________________________________
我比他好一點。________________________________________________________
第二課比第一課難很多。____________________________________________________
我的眼睛比她的大的多。________________________________________________


*A是兩者中較…..__________ 比較級+_______________two/both
 她是兩個女孩中較漂亮的She is _____ more beautiful ______ _______ two girls.
 這家店是兩家中較大的__________________________________________________

*A+be+比較級+than+any other+單數名詞 (限用於同一範圍的比較)
Bill is taller than any other boy in his class.
** New York is bigger than any city in England. (不同範圍,不加other)

*變的越來越……It becomes 比較級_____比較級

天氣越來越冷 _____________________________________________
她越來越胖__________________________________________________




「形容詞比較級和最高級的變化」

  • 1)+er(比較級), the est(最高級)(erɚ】,estst】)
Ex: smart, tall, cheap, small, …
原級
比較級
最高級
smart
smarter
the smartest

Ex: Tom is smart.  /   Tom’s brother is very smart.
->  Tom’s brother is smarter than Tom.
Ex: Tom’s sister is smarter than Tom’s brother. / Tom’s brother is smarter than Tom.
-> Tom’s sister is the smartest.

  • 2)單音節形容詞(子音+母音+子音):重覆字尾+ er(比較級), the +重覆字尾 +est(最高級)
Ex: thin, fat, wet, red, big…(thinner, the thinnest)
原級
比較級
最高級
fat
fatter
the fattest

  • 3)字尾為e的形容詞: r(比較級), the st(最高級)
Ex: cute, wise, brave, nice, large, close …
原級
比較級
最高級
cute
cuter
the cutest

  • 4)單音節及二音節形容詞字尾是(子音 + y):去掉y ier(比較級),the+去掉y iest(最高級)(ierɪɚ】,isetɪst】)
Ex: happy, lucky, busy, lazy, heavygrayer
原級
比較級
最高級
lucky
luckier
the luckiest

  • 5)二音節或多音節- more+形容詞(比較級),the most +形容詞(最高級)
Ex: common, handsome, difficult, special…
原級
比較級
最高級
difficult
more difficult
the most difficult

  • 6)字尾為 able, ible, ive, ing/ed, ful, less, ous, ary, ly的形容詞- more+形容詞(比較級),the most +形容詞(最高級)
Ex: fashionable, impossible, terrible, expensive, active, useful, useless, dangerous, famous, necessary, exciting
原級
比較級
最高級
boring
more boring
the most boring
7)不規則變化-
EX: bad-worse-the worst,   good/well-better-the best,   many/much-more-the most,   little-less-the least… 
原級
比較級
最高級
far
farther(距離)/ further(程度)
the farthest/ the furthest
late
later(稍後)/ latter(後者)
the latest(最近的)/ the last(最後一個)
old
older(年長)/ elder(次序)
the oldest/ the eldest

Ex: His elder brother is three years older than your eldest son.

形容詞原級、比較級和最高級的句型使用
I會在句中使用到「形容詞原級」的句型-
(1)    AB 一樣時-> as +原級+as
Ex.1: Sue is as beautiful as Mary.
Ex.2: Mark is as handsome as Jack.
(2)    A不如B 那樣時->  not as +原級+as
Ex.1: The horse is not as big as the bear.
Ex.2: The book is not as interesting as that one.
(3)    A不如B 那樣時-> less +原級+than (※ 即使這個句型中有個“than”, 但還是得注意要使用形容詞原級,因為前面已經有一個字 “less”做比較級變化了。)
Ex.1: Mary is less beautiful than Sue.
Ex.2: Jack is less handsome than Mark.
Ex.3: The horse is less big than the bear.
(4)    A是××裡頭最不…. -> the least +原級+ in/at/on…(雖然表達的是最高級,但還是得注意要使用形容詞原級,因為前面已經有一個字 “the least”做最高級變化了。)
Ex.1: The bird is the least big in the cage.
Ex.2: Which bird is the least large in the cage, the parrot, the pigeon or the eagle?

II. 會在句中使用到「形容詞比較級」的句型-
(1)    AB還要-> 比較級+than
Ex.1: Is eating vegetables healthier than eating meat?
Ex.2: Taking an airplane is faster than taking a train.
Ex.3: The novel is much/ a lot/ even/ far more difficult than that one.
(※劃底線的副詞用來加強比較級,翻成 “…得多,不可以用 “very”替換。)
2A是兩者中較-> the+比較級+ of the two
Ex.1: The ABC Airline is the more comfortable of the two airlines.
Ex.2: The basketball player is the taller of the two.
3)越,就越-> The +比較級,the+比較級
Ex.1: The more, the better.(越多越好。)
Ex.2: The more he reads, the less he understands.(讀得越多他越不懂。)

III會在句中使用到「形容詞最高級」的句型-
(1)   A是最-> the+最高級
Ex.1: The whale is the biggest sea animal.
Ex.2: The word “I” is the most common word in English conversations.
(2)   強調最高級時, 可使用 “the very”
Ex.1: Penny is the very most beautiful girl in our class.
Ex.2: Owl is the very wisest bird in the world.

IV當表達最高級時,我們也可使用比較級及原級來做句子替換。
Ex.: Jacky is the smartest student in my classroom.
Jacky is smarter than any other student in my classroom. 當成AB做比較
Jacky is smarter than all the other students in my classroom.當成AB做比較
No any other student / No other students in my classroom is as smart as Jacky


Exercise Online 1

Exercise Online 2

Exercise Online 3

 
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