Friday, July 31, 2015

TOEFL Writing Integrated -- Dinosaurs endotherms (TPO 04)


Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.



Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge the specific points made in the reading passage.

Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37° C, no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modem reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.

Polar dinosaurs
One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in polar regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.

Leg position and movement
There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal’s legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body’s side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.

Haversian canals
There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure. The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly, and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals.




Listen to the lecture.

Write your response here.


Sample response




Thursday, July 30, 2015

TOEFL 托福閱讀測驗模擬題 058 (附答案)



Cases in which many species become extinct within a geologically short interval of time are called mass extinctions. There was one such event at the end of the Cretaceous period (around 70 million years ago). There was another, even larger, mass extinction at the end of the Permian period (around 250 million years ago). The Permian event has attracted much less attention than other mass extinctions because mostly unfamiliar species perished at that time.


The fossil record shows at least five mass extinctions in which many families of marine organisms died out. The rates of extinction happening today are as great as the rates during these mass extinctions. Many scientists have therefore concluded that a sixth great mass extinction is currently in progress.


What could cause such high rates of extinction? There are several hypotheses, including warming or cooling of Earth, changes in seasonal fluctuations or ocean currents, and changing positions of the continents. Biological hypotheses include ecological changes brought about by the evolution of cooperation between insects and flowering plants or of bottom-feeding predators in the oceans. Some of the proposed mechanisms required a very brief period during which all extinctions suddenly took place; other mechanisms would be more likely to have taken place more gradually, over an extended period, or at different times on different continents. Some hypotheses fad to account for simultaneous extinctions on land and in the seas. Each mass extinction may have had a different cause. Evidence points to hunting by humans and habitat destruction as the likely causes for the current mass extinction.


 American paleontologists David Raup and John Sepkoski, who have studied extinction rates in a number of fossil groups, suggest that episodes of increased extinction have recurred periodically, approximately every 26 million years since the mid-Cretaceous period. The late Cretaceous extinction of the dinosaurs and am monoids was just one of the more drastic in a whole series of such recurrent extinction episodes. The possibility that mass extinctions may recur periodically has given rise to such hypotheses as that of a companion star with a long-period orbit deflecting other bodies from their normal orbits, making some of them fall to Earth as meteors and causing widespread devastation upon impact.


Of the various hypotheses attempting to account for the late Cretaceous extinctions, the one that has attracted the most attention in recent years is the asteroid-impact hypothesis first suggested by Luis and Walter Alvarez. According to this hypothesis, Earth collided with an asteroid with an estimated diameter of 10 kilometers, or with several asteroids, the combined mass of which was comparable. The force of collision spewed large amounts of debris into the atmosphere, darkening the skies for several years before the finer particles settled. The reduced level of photosynthesis led to a massive decline in plant life of all kinds, and this caused massive starvation first of herbivores and subsequently of carnivores. The mass extinction would have occurred very suddenly under this hypothesis.


One interesting test of the Alvarez hypothesis is based on the presence of the rare-earth element iridium (Ir). Earth' s crust contains very little of this element, but most asteroids contain a lot more. Debris thrown into the atmosphere by an asteroid collision would presumably contain large amounts of iridium, and atmospheric currents would carry this material all over the globe. A search of sedimentary deposits that span the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods shows that there is a dramatic increase in the abundance of iridium briefly and precisely at this boundary. This iridium anomaly offers strong support for the Alvarez hypothesis even though no asteroid itself has ever been recovered.


An asteroid of this size would be expected to leave an immense crater, even if the asteroid itself was disintegrated by the impact. The intense heat of the impact would produce heat-shocked quartz in many types of rock. Also, large blocks thrown aside by the impact would form secondary craters surrounding the main crater. To date, several such secondary craters have been found along Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, and heat-shocked quartz has been found both in Mexico and in Haiti. A location called Chicxulub, along the Yucatan coast, has been suggested as the primary impact site.



Paragraph 1: Cases in which many species become extinct within a geologically short interval of time are called mass extinctions. There was one such event at the end of the Cretaceous period (around 70 million years ago). There was another, even larger, mass extinction at the end of the Perm ian period (around 250 million years ago). The Permian event has attracted much less attention than other mass extinctions because mostly unfamiliar species perished at that time.


1.         Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about mass extinctions?

They take place over a period of 70 million years.

They began during the Cretaceous period.

They eliminate many animal species that exist at the time they occur.

They occur every 250 million years.


Paragraph 2: The fossil record shows at least five mass extinctions in which many families of marine organisms died out. The rates of extinction happening today are as great as the rates during these mass extinctions. Many scientists have therefore concluded that a sixth great mass extinction is currently in progress.


2.      According to paragraph 2, scientists base their belief that a mass extinction is going on at present on which of the following?

The speed with which mass extinctions are happening today is similar to the speed of past extinctions.

The number of species that have died out since the last extinction event is extremely large.

Mass extinctions occur with regularity and it is time for another one.

Fossil records of many marine species have disappeared.


Paragraph 3: What could cause such high rates of extinction? There are several hypotheses, including warming or cooling of Earth, changes in seasonal fluctuations or ocean currents, and changing positions of the continents. Biological hypotheses include ecological changes brought about by the evolution of cooperation between insects and flowering plants or of bottom-feeding predators in the oceans. Some of the proposed mechanisms required a very brief period during which all extinctions suddenly took place; other mechanisms would be more likely to have taken place more gradually, over an extended period, or at different times on different continents. Some hypotheses fad to account for simultaneous extinctions on land and in the seas. Each mass extinction may have had a different cause. Evidence points to hunting by humans and habitat destruction as the likely causes for the current mass extinction.


3.      The word extended in the passage is closest in meaning to

specific

unlimited

reasonable

long


4.     According to paragraph 3, each of the following has been proposed as a possible cause of mass extinctions EXCEPT

habitat destruction

continental movement

fierce interspecies competition

changes in Earth's tem perature


5.     Paragraph 3 supports which of the following ideas about mass extinctions?

Scientists know the exact causes of most mass extinctions.

Mass extinctions are unlikely to happen again in the future.

Insects, flowering plants, and bottom-feeding predators in the oceans tend to be the first organisms to disappear during episodes of mass extinctions.

Some mass extinctions occurred on land and in the seas at the same time.


paragraph 4: American paleontologists David Raup and John Sepkoski, who have studied extinction rates in a number of fossil groups, suggest that episodes of increased extinction have recurred periodically, approximately every 26 million years since the mid-Cretaceous period. The late Cretaceous extinction of the dinosaurs and am monoids was just one of the more drastic in a whole series of such recurrent extinction episodes. The possibility that mass extinctions may recur periodically has given rise to such hypotheses as that of a companion star with a long-period orbit deflecting other bodies from their normal orbits, making some of them fall to Earth as meteors and causing widespread devastation upon impact.


6.     Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Based on their studies of extinction rates of numerous fossil groups, paleontologists David Raup and John Sepkoski have determined that mass extinctions occur about every 26 million years.

David Raup and John Sepkoski studied extinction rates of numerous fossil groups and suggest that mass extinctions during the Cretaceous period continued for 26 million years.

Studies that paleontologists David Raup and John Sepkoski conducted of various fossil groups have revealed that extinction rates have increased over the past 26 million years.

The studies conducted by paleontologists David Raup and John Sepkoski of the fossil remains of species suggest that the extinction rate of species started to increase by the middle of the Cretaceous period.


7.     According to paragraph 4, what aspect of extinction episodes does the companion-star hypothesis supposedly clarify?

Their location

Their frequency

Their duration

Their severity


Paragraph 5: Of the various hypotheses attempting to account for the late Cretaceous extinctions, the one that has attracted the most attention in recent years is the asteroid-impact hypothesis first suggested by Luis and Walter Alvarez. According to this hypothesis, Earth collided with an asteroid with an estimated diameter of 10 kilometers, or with several asteroids, the combined mass of which was comparable. The force of collision spewed large amounts of debris into the atmosphere, darkening the skies for several years before the finer particles settled. The reduced level of photosynthesis led to a massive decline in plant life of all kinds, and this caused massive starvation first of herbivores and subsequently of carnivores. The mass extinction would have occurred very suddenly under this hypothesis.


8.    The phrase account for in the passage is closest in meaning to

describe

challenge

explain

test


Paragraph 6: One interesting test of the Alvarez hypothesis is based on the presence of the rare-earth element iridium (Ir). Earth’s crust contains very little of this element, but most asteroids contain a lot more. Debris thrown into the atmosphere by an asteroid collision would presumably contain large amounts of iridium, and atmospheric currents would carry this material all over the globe. A search of sedimentary deposits that span the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods shows that there is a dramatic increase in the abundance of iridium briefly and precisely at this boundary. This iridium anomaly offers strong support for the Alvarez hypothesis even though no asteroid itself has ever been recovered.


9.     According to paragraph 6, what made iridium a useful test of the Alvarez hypothesis?

Its occurrence in a few locations on Earth against several locations on other planets

Its occurrence in limited quantities on Earth against its abundance in asteroids

Its ability to remain solid at extremely high temperatures

Its ease of detection even in very small amounts


10.  In stating that no asteroid itself has ever been recovered the author emphasizes which of the following?

The importance of the indirect evidence for a large asteroid

The fact that no evidence supports the asteroid impact hypothesis

The reason many researchers reject the Alvarez hypothesis

The responsibility of scientists for not making the effort to discover the asteroid itself


Paragraph 7: An asteroid of this size would be expected to leave an immense crater, even if the asteroid itself was disintegrated by the impact. The intense heat of the impact would produce heat-shocked quartz in many types of rock. Also, large blocks thrown aside by the impact would form secondary craters surrounding the main crater. To date, several such secondary craters have been found along Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, and heat-shocked quartz has been found both in Mexico and in Haiti. A location called Chicxulub, along the Yucatan coast, has been suggested as the primary impact site.


11.  The word intense in the passage is closest in meaning to

sudden

unusual

immediate

extreme


12.  What is the purpose of paragraph 7 in the passage?

It proposes a decisive new test of the Alvarez hypothesis.

It presents additional supporting evidence for the Alvarez hypothesis.

It explains why evidence relating to the Alvarez hypothesis is hard to find.

It shows how recent evidence has raised doubts about the Alvarez hypothesis


Paragraph 1: Cases in which many species become extinct within a geologically short interval of time are called mass extinctions. There was one such event at the end of the Cretaceous period (around 70 million years ago). There was another, even larger, mass extinction at the end of the Perm ian period (around 250 million years ago). The Permian event has attracted much less attention than other mass extinctions because mostly unfamiliar species perished at that time.


13.  Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

In general, it is believed that these two extinctions resulted from drastic environmental changes that followed meteorite impacts or massive volcanic eruptions.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14.  Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

There have been many attempts to explain the causes of mass extinctions.




Answer Choices

Asteroid impacts, evolutionary developments, and changes in Earth' s climate and in the positions of the continents have all been proposed as possible causes of mass extinctions.

Researchers have observed 26-million-year cycles in extinction rates of a number of fossil groups that could all be attributed to the same cause.

According to the Alvarez hypothesis, much of the iridium originally present on Earth was thrown into the atmosphere as a result of an asteroid impact that also caused a mass extinction.

The unusual distribution of iridium on Earth and the presence of craters and heat-shocked quartz are central to the theory that an asteroid impact caused the late Cretaceous event.

The collision between Earth and a large asteroid resulted in massive damage and generated enough heat to cause irreversible changes in Earth' s atmosphere.

There was a particularly large mass extinction that occurred around 250 million years ago at the end of the Permian period, whose cause could not be determined.

Answer Online


參考答案 + 翻譯

Monday, July 27, 2015

TOEFL 托福閱讀測驗模擬題 057 (附答案)



When it comes to physiology, the leatherback turtle is, in some ways, more like a reptilian whale than a turtle. It swims farther into the cold of the northern and southern oceans than any other sea turtle, and it deals with the chilly waters in a way unique among reptiles.


A warm-blooded turtle may seem to be a contradiction in terms. Nonetheless, an adult leatherback can maintain a body tem perature of between 25 and 26°C (77 - 79°F) in seawaterthat is only 8°C (46.4°F). Accomplishing this feat requires adaptations both to generate heat in the turtle' s body and to keep it from escaping into the surrounding waters. Leatherbacks apparently do not generate internal heat the way we do, or the way birds do, as a by-product of cellular metabolism. A leatherback may be able to pick up some body heat by basking at the surface; its dark, almost black body color may help it to absorb solar radiation. However, most of its internal heat comes from the action of its muscles.


Leatherbacks keep their body heat in three different ways. The first, and simplest, is size. The bigger the animal is, the lower as surface­to-volum e ratio; for every ounce of body mass, there is proportionately less surface through which heat can escape. An adult leatherback is twice the size of the biggest cheloniid sea turtles and will therefore take longer to cool off. Maintaining a high body temperature through sheer bulk is called gigantotherrny. It works for elephants, for whales, and, perhaps, it worked for many of the larger dinosaurs. It apparently works, in a smaller way, for some other sea turtles. Large loggerhead and green turtles can maintain their body temperature at a degree or two above that of the surrounding water, and gigantothermy is probably the way they do it. Muscular activity helps, too, and an actively swimming green turtle may be T C (12.6° F) warmer than the waters it swims through.


Gigantothermy, though, would not be enough to keep a leatherback warm in cold northern waters. It is not enough for whales, which supplement it with a thick layer of insulating blubber (fat).


Leatherbacks do not have blubber, but they do have a reptilian equivalent: thick, oil-saturated skin, with a layer of fibrous, fatty tissue just beneath a. Insulation protects the leatherback everywhere but on its head and flippers. Because the flippers are com paratively thin and blade like, they are the one part of the leatherback that is likely to become chilled. There is not much that the turtle can do about this without compromising the aerodynamic shape of the flipper. The problem is that as blood flows through the turtle's flippers, it risks losing enough heat to lower the anim al's central body temperature when (it] returns. The solution is to allow the flippers to cool down without drawing heat away from the rest of the turtle's body. The leatherback accomplishes this by arranging the blood vessels in the base of as flipper into a countercurrent exchange system.


In a countercurrent exchange system, the blood vessels carrying cooled blood from the flippers run close enough to the blood vessels carrying warm blood from the body to pick up some heat from the warmer blood vessels; thus, the heat is transferred from the outgoing to the ingoing vessels before it reaches the flipper itself.This is the same arrangement found in an old-fashioned steam radiator, in which the coiled pipes pass heat back and forth as water courses through them . The leatherback is certainly not the only animal with such an arrangement; gulls have a countercurrent exchange in their legs. That is why a gull can stand on an ice floe without freezing.


All this applies, of course, only to an adult leatherback. Hatchlings are simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it can switch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach their immense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhaps their rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm.



Paragraph 1When it comes to physiology, the leatherback turtle is, in some ways, more like a reptilian whale than a turtle. It swims farther into the cold of the northern and southern oceans than any other sea turtle, and it deals with the chilly waters in a way unique among reptiles.


1.     The phrase unique among in the passage is closest in meaning to

natural to

different from all other

quite common among

familiar to


2.   What can be inferred about whales from paragraph 1?

They are considered by some to be reptiles.

Their bodies are built in a way that helps them manage extremely cold temperatures

They are distantly related to leatherback turtles.

They can swim farther than leatherback turtles.


Paragraph 2:A warm-blooded turtle may seem to be a contradiction in terms. Nonetheless, an adult leatherback can maintain a body tem perature of between 25 and 26°C (77 - 79°F) in seawaterthat is only 8°C (46.4°F). Accomplishing this feat requires adaptations both to generate heat in the turtle' s body and to keep it from escaping into the surrounding waters. Leatherbacks apparently do not generate internal heat the way we do, or the way birds do, as a by-product of cellular metabolism. A leatherback may be able to pick up some body heat by basking at the surface; its dark, almost black body color may help it to absorb solar radiation. However, most of its internal heat comes from the action of its muscles.


3.     The word feat in the passage is closest in meaning to

remarkable achievement

common transformation

daily activity

complex solution


4.   Paragraph 2 mentions all of the following as true about the body heat of adult leatherback turtles EXCEPT:

Their muscles produce heat for maintaining body temperature.

Their clark bodies help trap solar radiation.

Their cellular metabolism produces heat as a by-product.

Basking at the waters surface helps them obtain heat.


Paragraph 3: Leatherbacks keep their body heat in three different ways. The first, and simplest, is size. The bigger the animal is, the lower as surface­to-volum e ratio; for every ounce of body mass, there is proportionately less surface through which heat can escape. An adult leatherback is twice the size of the biggest cheloniid sea turtles and will therefore take longer to cool off. Maintaining a high body temperature through sheer bulk is called gigantotherrny. It works for elephants, for whales, and, perhaps, it worked for many of the larger dinosaurs. It apparently works, in a smaller way, for some other sea turtles. Large loggerhead and green turtles can maintain their body temperature at a degree or two above that of the surrounding water, and gigantothermy is probably the way they do a. Muscular activity helps, too, and an actively swimming green turtle may be T C (12.6° F) warmer than the waters it swims through.


5.     The word bulk in the passage is closest in meaning to

strength

effort

activity

mass


Paragraph 4: Gigantothermy, though, would not be enough to keep a leatherback warm in cold northern waters. It is not enough for whales, which supplement it with a thick layer of insulating blubber (fat).

Paragraph 5: Leatherbacks do not have blubber, but they do have a reptilian equivalent: thick, oil-saturated skin, with a layer of fibrous, fatty tissue just beneath a. Insulation protects the leatherback everywhere but on its head and flippers. Because the flippers are com paratively thin and blade like, they are the one part of the leatherback that is likely to become chilled. There is not much that the turtle can do about this without compromising the aerodynamic shape of the flipper. The problem is that as blood flows through the turtle's flippers, it risks losing enough heat to lower the animal's central body temperature when it returns. The solution is to allow the flippers to cool down without drawing heat away from the rest of the turtle's body. The leatherback accomplishes this by arranging the blood vessels in the base of as flipper into a countercurrent exchange system.


6.     The word it in paragraph 4 refers to

the problem

blood

the turtle

body temperature


7.     According to paragraph 4, which of the following features enables the leatherback turtle to stay warm?

An insulating layer of blubber

A thick, oily skin covering fatty tissue

The aerodynamic shape of its flippers

A well-insulated head


Paragraph 6: In a countercurrent exchange system , the blood vessels carrying cooled blood from the flippers run close enough to the blood vessels carrying warm blood from the body to pick up some heat from the warmer blood vessels; thus, the heat is transferred from the outgoing to the ingoing vessels before it reaches the flipper itself. This is the same arrangement found in an old-fashioned steam radiator, in which the coiled pipes pass heat back and forth as water courses through them. The leatherback is certainly not the only animal with such an arrangement; gulls have a countercurrent exchange in their legs. That is why a gull can stand on an ice floe without freezing.


8.    Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

In a turtle's countercurrent exchange system, outgoing vessels lie near enough to ingoing ones that heat can be exchanged from the former to the latter before reaching the turtle' s flippers.

Within the turtle' s flippers, there is a countercurrent exchange system that allows colder blood vessels to absorb heat from nearby warmer blood vessels and then return warmed blood to the turtle's body.

In a countercurrent exchange system, a turtle can pick up body heat from being close enough to other turtles, thus raising its blood temperature as it passes them.

When a turtle places its flippers close to its body,it is able to use its countercurrent exchange system to transfer heat from the warmer blood vessels in its body to the cooler blood vessels in its flippers.


9.     Why does the author mention old-fashioned steam radiator in the discussion of countercurrent exchange systems?

To argue that a turtle' s central heating system is not as highly evolved as that of other warmblooded animals

To provide a useful comparison with which to illustrate how a countercurrent exchange system works

To suggest that steam radiators were modeled after the sophisticated heating system of turtles

To establish the importance of the movement of water in countercurrent exchange systems


10. The phrase courses through in the passage is closest in meaning to

rises through

heats up in

runs through

collects in


Paragraph 6All this applies, of course, only to an adult leatherback. Hatchlings are simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it can switch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach their immense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhaps their rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm.


11. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?

They lack the countercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.

Their rate of growth is slower than that of other sea turtles.

They lose heat easily even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems.

They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughout their hatchling stage.


Paragraph 3: Leatherbacks keep their body heat in three different ways. The first, and simplest, is size. The bigger the animal is, the lower as surface­to-volum e ratio; for every ounce of body mass, there is proportionately less surface through which heat can escape. An adult leatherback is twice the size of the biggest cheloniid sea turtles and will therefore take longer to cool off. Maintaining a high body temperature through sheer bulk is called gigantotherrny. It works for elephants, for whales, and, perhaps, it worked for many of the larger dinosaurs. It apparently works, in a smaller way, for some other sea turtles. Large loggerhead and green turtles can maintain their body temperature at a degree or two above that of the surrounding water, and gigantothermy is probably the way they do a. Muscular activity helps, too, and an actively swimming green turtle may be T C (12.6° F) warmer than the waters it swims through.


12.  Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

However, these animals have additional means of staying warm.

Where would the sentence best fit?


13.  Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.


Contrary to what we would expect of reptiles. the leatherback turtle is actually warm-blooded.




Answer Choices

Even though they swim into cold ocean waters, leatherbacks maintain their body heat in much the same way as sea turtles in warm southern oceans do.

The leatherback turtle uses a countercurrent exchange system in order to keep the flippers from drawing heat away from the rest of the body.

The shape of the leatherback turtle's flippers is especially important in maintaining heat in extremely cold northern waters.

The leatherback turtle is able to maintain body heat through sheer size.

Leatherbacks have an insulating layer that can be considered the reptilian version of blubber.

Young leatherbacks often do not survive to adulthood because they are not able to switch from a cold-blooded way of life to a warm-blooded one quickly enough.



參考答案 + 翻譯



 
推薦本文到Facebook去!