Friday, April 27, 2012

Adjective clauses 形容詞子句



Adjective Clause
1) 除了用單詞或短語來形容名詞外,還可以用子句來形容,那些從句稱為「形容詞子句」Adjective Clause;而被形容的名詞,稱為「先行詞」Antecedent Ex:
  We need fearless men.﹝單詞形容 "men"  We need men without fear.﹝短語形容 "men"  We need men who are fearless. ﹝子句形容 "men"把形容詞子句附屬到主句身上的詞有三種:   (1) 關係代名詞 Relative Pronoun
  (2) 關係形容詞 Relative Adjective
  (3) 關係副詞 Relative Adverb
1. 關係代名詞 Relative Pronoun    
有:(1) who﹝代人﹞;(2) whom﹝代人﹞;(3) which﹝代物﹞;    (4) that﹝代人或物﹞;(5) as﹝代人或物﹞    
例如:    
  The two men who are in that house are my uncles.  * 關係代名詞 "who" 的身和數由先行詞 "men" 決定。    
  This is the man who showed me the way.   There is somebody who wants you on the telephone.  ﹝有人想你接聽電話。﹞   The girl whom you saw is her sister-in-law.  * 當關係代名詞在形容詞從句中作受詞時,可隱藏,即:    The girl you saw is her sister-in-law.   Whom do you mean? Who do you mean?
    
  I know the man whom you mean.   I know the man who you mean.  ﹝我認識你所意指的那個人。﹞  * 可隱藏 "whom" "who",即:I know the man you mean.    
  The woman for whom you wrote a letter yesterday is my aunt.  ﹝你昨天替她寫信的婦人是我的伯母。﹞   * 當關係代名詞在形容詞從句中作介詞的代名詞時,不能隱藏。    不過,改為「變裝」後則可:    
  「原裝」:The woman for whom you wrote a letter yesterday is my aunt.
  「變裝」:The woman whom you wrote a letter for yesterday is my aunt.
  「簡裝」:The woman you wrote a letter for yesterday is my aunt.  The house which is for sale is at the end of the street.  History is a very long story which is still going on.  Do you know the time on which John went to America?   * 「原裝」:Do you know the time on which John went to America?
    「變裝」:Do you know the time which John went to America on?
    「簡裝」:Do you know the time John went to America on?
    
  This is the book in which you can find the answer.   * 「原裝」:This is the book in which you can find the answer.
    「變裝」:This is the book which you can find the answer in.
    「簡裝」:This is the book you can find the answer in.  Can you tell me the place at which we can have a quiet talk?   * 「原裝」:Can you tell me the place at which we can have
              a quiet talk?    「變裝」:Can you tell me the place which we can have
              a quiet talk at?    「簡裝」:Can you tell me the place we can have
              a quiet talk at?  Do you know the reason for which they love each other?   * 「原裝」:Do you know the reason for which they love each other?
    「變裝」:Do you know the reason which they love each other for?
    「簡裝」:Do you know the reason they love each other for?  The man that sold you the camera is a rogue.  This is the best logical book that I have ever read.   * 關係代名詞作賓語,可隱藏:    This is the best logical book I have ever read.     This is the same watch as I lost yesterday.  ﹝這手錶跟我昨天遺失的是同一類型。﹞   * This is the same watch that I lost yesterday.    ﹝這就是我昨天遺失的手錶。﹞
       2. 關係形容詞 Relative Adjective    
有:whose
例如:    
  The boy whose hair is yellow is his brother.   * 說所有頭髮,hair 不加 "s";加了 "s",指兩條、三條 ……  That is the girl whose sister is a teacher.3. 關係副詞 Relative Adverb    
有:(1) when (2) where (3) why例如:   Do you know the time when Mary will come to Hong Kong?   * 句中有顯示時間的字詞例如 "time",在形容詞從句中的 "when"
    可隱藏,即:Do you know the time Mary will come to Hong Kong?
    又例如:    That was the first time ( when ) I went to the Great Wall.    
  I do not know the place where he will go.  I do not know the reason why he did not come yesterday.   * 若先行詞是 "reason", "why" 可隱藏,即:    I do not know the reason he did not come yesterday.附錄:限制性從句與非限制性從句據「先行詞是否被形容詞從句限制」這個標準,形容詞從句可分兩種:    
(1) 限制性從句 Defining Clause:先行詞被形容詞從句限制;(2) 非限制性從句 Non-defining Clause:先行詞不被形容詞從句    限制。    
例如:    
  He has a brother who is a teacher.  ﹝他有一個任教師的兄弟。﹞   * "who is a teacher" 是限制性從句,限制 "brother" 的範圍。  He has a brother, who is a teacher.  ﹝他有一個兄弟,他是教師。﹞   * "who is a teacher" 是非限制性從句,沒有限制 "brothre" 的範圍,    只是補充說明而已。  * 要用 "," 把非限制性從句與其他部分隔開。  * 比較:第一句意味著他可能還有其他兄弟;第二句意味著他只有一個兄弟。    
"that" 在限制性從句中,可代人或物,但在非限制性從句中,   卻不能。    
例如:    
  He has a brother that is a teacher. ﹝正確﹞   He has a brother, that is a teacher. ﹝錯誤﹞  I returned all the books which are scientific ones to
  the library.  ﹝我把所有科學書都交還圖書館。﹞  I returned all the books, which are scientific ones, to
  the library.  ﹝我把所有書都交還圖書館,那些是科學書。﹞   * 比較:第一句意味著還了那些科學書,可能有其他書未還;          第二句意味著所有書都還了。


練習

[_] 句中圈出形容詞子句       線上練習 1                線上練習 2



[] 翻譯線上練習


[_] 限定、非限定用法                         線上練習

[  ] 選擇題綜合演練 1        綜合演練 2

[ ]  形容詞子句轉為分詞片語

Saturday, April 21, 2012

金針菇的英文怎麼說??

不是因為要講金針菇的笑話,純粹是沒事想到,平常學習英文的我們如果對烹煮沒特別的興趣,是很難有機會去查到特殊蔬菜類的英文的。

好險金針菇它有個"菇"字,我們在下關鍵字查詢的時候簡單多了。

"金珍菇 + mushroom"

其實它的名稱滿多的:
"golden mushroom"   --> 約有 243,000 項結果 (搜尋時間:0.31 秒)
"Golden needle mushroom" (簡直就是照翻) --> 約有 55,600 項結果 (搜尋時間:0.25 秒) 

但它真正的名字,其實是延用日本的名字
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enokitake

但是現在用Golden mushroom 的人,似乎是最多的



順帶一提,金針花又是不一樣的東西了!!!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemerocallis_fulva

Friday, April 20, 2012

大口吃肉、大口喝酒


大口吃肉、大口喝酒

人生在世許多人追求的境界不同,歸納起來終究不外呼大口吃肉、大口喝酒而已矣!

怎麼說呢?

首先,這酒、肉、代表了是美食,能夠享受美食,誰說不是一大快事!

而且,面對美食要能大口享受,想必胃口一定不差吧!若是未太多身外之事煩心,恐怕還沒辦法享受!要減肥啦!要防三高啦!工作壓力,家庭壓力!若是能拋開這一切,這是何等愉快!

另外,要享受美食也得財力有餘裕才行,瞧這大口大口的吃,也要有大方的本錢是吧!

大口吃肉,表示你沒有太嚴重的膽固醇、脂肪的問題,同樣的能夠大口喝酒,不怕醉嗎?不怕的原因可能是你不擔心明天宿醉影響到工作,要不是你心臟大顆,就是你安排得宜,不會影響,或者就是單純有多出來的時間,無論如何,有錢有閒,都是最愉悅的事!

一個人吃飯喝酒,大口也不暢快,最好是有一群可以陪你的朋友,這表示你人際關係有一定的維持,這在人生的課題上又是一大勝利。

再來說吃肉喝酒要在什麼時機呢?不外乎是有要慶祝的事情!有三五好有一起慶祝,吃飯喝酒都是享受,當然如果沒有什麼特殊理由也可以找出去吃飯喝酒,那又是更自在了!!

Friday, April 13, 2012

Listening Practice (41) Joey's Roommate

前情提要影片:

Joey 因為Chandler 跟Monica 結婚了必須找個新室友,看看他找到了誰?



下載影片             備用載點



下載聽打口語搞         備用載點


下載教學

最終,新室友Janine 還是跟Joey 在一起了。他們甚至會跟Chandler 與Monica 一起出去呢?






下載影片             備用載點




[Scene: The Hallway between the apartments, Joey, Janine, Chandler, and Monica are returning from a double date. Chandler is telling a joke.]
Chandler: …so then the farmer says, "That’s not a cow and you’re not milking it." (Everyone laughs.)
Monica: I am so glad ___________________, Chandler and I are always looking _______________________________!
Chandler: Look at us, we’re _______________!
Janine: I had so much fun tonight, and what a great restaurant.
Monica: Yeah.
Joey: And Chandler I can’t believe I let you pay for this one. (They hug and he whispers in his ear.) Thanks man.
Monica: So do you guys gonna come over tomorrow? I’ll make that _____ _____ I was telling you about.
Janine: Oh that would be great!
Joey: Oh, but hey look, at least let us bring the wine.
Monica: Joey, you don’t have too!
Joey: Nope-op! I insist! (He hugs Chandler again and whispers to him.) ___________________?
Chandler: Yeah all right. (They part.) Okay, good night guys.
Joey: See ya tomorrow!
Monica: Tomorrow!
Janine: Can’t wait! (They each go into their respective apartments.)



下載聽打口語搞         備用載點









下載影片             備用載點



注意以下的英文如何翻成中文,中文又要如何翻成影片中的英文想想看,你會說了嗎:



  1. 我不曉得Joey有沒有跟你們說,我今天一定要去看一場戲,推也推不掉。
  2. 唯一件比觀賞現代舞更無聊的事情就是聽你聊現代舞。
  3. 我在你們兩個開始交往的時候幫了很多忙。
  4. 我沒有辦法忍受連續兩個晚上跟他們在一起。
  5. 我只是過來為我的行為向你道歉,我真心的希望我們可以成為朋友。
  6. 真有趣,我一點鼻涕也沒有看到。
  7. 她到底是哪位,可以這樣評判我們?我們可是對他再好不過了!
  8. 你最好不要讓我在走廊看到你!


Answer Online 

Thursday, April 12, 2012

[_] 與過去相反的假設

1.    與過去事實相反
If I had known him before, we would have been really good friends.
If you had studied hard, you would have passed the exam.
解釋作︰要是…當時…,…早就…。
If 後面的句子用Had + p.p.,主要子句加would have + p.p.
當然,這也不是固定的模式。
If you had studied hard, you would not be afraid of the exam now.
            解釋作︰要是…當時…,…現在就…。



與過去事實相違反:
      主要子句                     從属子句
      would
      could           havep.p.         hadpp
      might
      should

1. If he had worked harder, he would have passed the examination last semester.
2. If he had had enough money last year, he would have bought the fancy car.
3. He would have come if it had not rained this morning.
4. We would have caught the train if we had started earlier.
5. If you had not told her where Tom was, she would never have found him.

Exercise:
1. If you ______ (not break) up with her at that time, you ________ (marry) her.
2. I ________ (not finish) my job if you _______ (not help) me then.
3. If they _______ (advise) him earlier, he ______ (not lose) so much money.
4. We ________ (prepare) enough food if we _________ (know) there were so many
  guests.                                           
5. If he ________ (show) up yesterday, he ________ (turn) down the proposal. 




時間的混用:有些時候同一個句子可能會有兩個不同的時間出現,比如過去的因產生現在的果,我們寫動詞時,還是要區分發生的時間,以及主要子句或是從属子句的區別。
1. If I had studied medicine before, I would be a doctor now.
2. You wouldn’t be here now if you hadn’t been born before.
3. If I hadn’t read the directions in the past, I would not be able to tell you how to use it now.
4. You would be very regretful now if you had done such a silly thing before
5. If I hadn’t married before I would be lonely now.

Exercise:
1. If you ______ (not meet) him before, you ______ (not be) hurt so badly now.
2. I ______ (help) you now if you ______ (not speak) ill of me before.
3. You ______ (live) a happy life now if you _______ (work) hard in your youth.
4. We ______ (be) able to go on a vacation now if we _______ (make) a reservation in advance.
5. If my husband_____ (give) me enough money last week, I ______ (not be) worried about my budget now.










Monday, April 09, 2012

Free Language Exchange Taipei


Language Exchange

When:  4/27 (Fri) 08:00~ 16:00
Where: Center for Traditional Art in Yilan (http://www.ncfta.gov.tw/ncfta_ce/main/index.aspx)

This is a program run by China University of Technology (http://www.cute.edu.tw/~deng/indexc.htm) and its English department, and a chance to visit some of the tourist attractions in Taiwan virtually free of charge!!
The school will take care of transportation, the entrance fee, and food! All you need to do is mingle with the students and learn as much as you can about the local culture (which you may have already liked to do!) with all your language skills.

If you are interested, feel free to contact me or ask me any question. cyc1120alice@gmail.com. If you think your friends might be interested, please forward this to them. 

Sunday, April 08, 2012

TOEFL Speaking Part 1--TOPIC 37


37. Which person are you most likely to go to with a personal problem? Describe this person and say why you would go to him/her in particular.

Thursday, April 05, 2012

Aerodynamically impossible??? 不要再說大黃蜂不能飛了!!!

有此一說,說大黃蜂的身體跟翅膀的比例其實是不能飛行的(aerodynamically impossible),也就是說,它的翅膀太小,身體卻太大。但是呢,大黃蜂不知道空氣動力學,只是努力的飛,結果... 就噗噗噗噗噗噗地飛起來了!!!

我去參加直銷的演講,就有人這麼說過!!

我後來去聽大學裡的演講,主講者博士們也這麼說!!

我去北京參加一間教育公司的開幕儀式,主要的貴賓、老師們也都是這麼說的!!

但是違反空氣動力學的大黃蜂不僅個個會飛,飛得還剝棒呢!! 還有人為它寫了首曲兒!!




所以他們的身體條件是不能飛的????

或許吧!! 但是這是一個沒來由沒根據的說法!!! 只是一個餐會上一個自稱航空動力學家舉的例子,因為很有趣,所以大家都會引用。後來也漸漸有人提出了,真相是如果大黃蜂的翅膀是像飛機那樣的話,的確它的比例是無法飛行的,也無法滑翔,你有看過昆蟲滑翔嗎???? 大黃蜂的翅膀是會動的,OK????? 所謂大黃蜂的身體跟翅膀不成比例的問題,或許就不適用在這邊!! 畢竟它是一秒鐘可以揮動高達兩百下的!!! 它想要造成多少的上昇氣流,就可以造成多少的上昇氣流,並非大家所講的,好像它是飛行界當中的肢障朋友,然後努力不懈這樣。嚴格來說,它是飛航界的洪金寶呢只是骨架較大啊啊啊!!!!!

所以呢,它還是可以飛的。











Wednesday, April 04, 2012

都市更新的英文怎麼說?



就如同電視劇「步步驚心」讓某些人關注了新一代小生林更新,






文林苑的風波,掀起了大家對都市更新及居住正義的關心,於是我們也要講一下都市更新的英文怎麼講。那麼我們第一步就是要在Google 上鍵入 「都市更新 + 一個英文關鍵字」

要用那一個英文的關鍵字呢?如果你輸入的是「都市更新 + City」,結果可能不如你滿意。不過,就算你用的是city這個字好了,你花幾秒鐘時間也就能找到可靠的資料,比如說:「新北市都市更新處」等等的單位,他的名稱最起碼也是正式的,會錯的機率不高。(也會錯啦!但是機率比較低!我說的是機率!)

那麼你是不是注意到了,它是用urban redevelopment 的用法。或許你會恍然大悟:對嘛!! 還有urban 這個字!!關於urban 這個字,它當然是務實的羅馬人用的拉丁字根。還記得市郊是 suburban area嗎!?! 所以urban 這個字是對了!

那你要不要試一試用「都市更新 + urban」查一查?!

哇賽!出現的都是urban renewal 這個詞!

這時候一個新問題又出現了對不對?Urban redevelopment urban renewal 又有什麼不同呢?我想這個問題就牽涉到專業啦!或許要對Urban Planning 有研究的人才可以詳解。

對於我們素人而言,可以上一下Wikipedia 去查一下關於urban renewal,我們素人應該了解的有多少便可。


就我所看到的,第一句就闡釋了它們的關係:Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use.

另外,它還提到
Title One of the Housing Act of 1949 kick-started the "urban renewal" program that would reshape American cities. (1949Wow! 台灣才剛光復耶!)

The phrase used at the time was "urban redevelopment." "Urban renewal" was a phrase popularized with the passage of the 1954 Housing Act.

所以這邊可以簡單一窺urban renewal 的來源。

如果你正要考TOEFL之類的,不妨就看看當做新增知識囉!!

Monday, April 02, 2012

半月軟骨的英文怎麼說???

Jeremy Lin 帶給全世界的Linsanity 很可惜地要先劃下一個.... .... 逗點! 絕不是句點!

NEW YORK, NY - MARCH 20:  Jeremy Lin #17 of the New York Knicks looks on against the Toronto Raptors at Madison Square Garden on March 20, 2012 in New York City.  NOTE TO USER: User expressly acknowledges and agrees that, by downloading and or using this photograph, User is consenting to the terms and conditions of the Getty Images License Agreement.  (Photo by Chris Chambers/Getty Images)現在跟外國朋友講到林書豪的傷勢都必須談到他傷的"半月軟骨"

(什麼??!! 你都只講到He hurt his left knee 而已嗎??!?!?!?!?)


其實要查到這個名詞不難,一但你動手了就必定可以查到!!

這邊是其中一篇報導

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/31/jeremy-lin-injured-knee-surgery-meniscus-tear_n_1394048.html

裡面你應該會看到,林書豪做了MRI 檢查之後,原來是 ... chronic meniscus tear

是Chronic!  所以是老傷了!! 保養一下也好,畢竟有八成左右的人都是回的來的,更何況我們J-Lin 是上帝的精兵,想想!! 他在這時候受傷時機不算太差

他自己都說:


"If this was done very early in the year, obviously ... I don't know where my career would be. I could be, would be definitely without a job and probably fighting for a summer league spot," Lin said Saturday. "But having said that, this happening now hurts just as much, because all the players, we really put our heart and souls into the team and into season, and to not be there when it really matters most is hard."



當然,你找到這個字不夠,還要看一看它這個字怎麼用!!!
如果你要找這個字怎麼用的話,就Google 一下 "Jeremy+ meniscus"

以下是我提供幾個例子:

Jeremy Lin reportedly has a torn meniscus and will miss six weeks, according to the New York Daily News.

 Lin will miss approximately six weeks after an MRI revealed a small chronic meniscus tear, the Knicks’ official site reports.

這是林書豪的在記者會上面談到的,可以聽一聽,練一下聽力。
 
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